Упражнения на употребление «Пассивного залога» Present, Past, Future Simple Passive
Раскройте скобки , употребляя глаголы в Present, Past или Future Simple Passive.
1. Bread (to eat) every day. 2. The letter (to receive) yesterday. 3. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week. 4. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday. 5. I (to give) a very interesting book at the library last Friday. 6. Many houses (to build) in our town every year. 7. This work (to do) tomorrow. 8. This text (to translate) at the last lesson. 9. These trees (to plant) last autumn. 10. Many interesting games always (to play) at our PT lessons. 11. This bone (to give) to my dog tomorrow. 12. We (to invite) to a concert last Saturday. 13. My question (to answer) yesterday. 14. Hockey (to play) in winter. 15. Mushrooms (to gather) in autumn. 16. Many houses (to burn) during the Great Fire of London. 17. His new book (to finish) next year. 18. Flowers (to sell) in shops and in the streets. 19. St. Petersburg (to found) in 1703.
Передайте следующие предложения в Passive Voice, обращая внимание на место предлога.
E.g. We often speak about her. — She is often spoken about.
1. We thought about our friend all the time. 2. The doctor will operate on him in a week. 3. The teacher sent for the pupil’s parents. 4. They looked for the newspaper everywhere. 5. Nobody slept in the bed. 6. The neighbour asked for the telegram. 7. Everybody listened to the lecturer with great attention. 8. The senior students laughed at the freshman. 9. The group spoke to the headmistress yesterday. 10. The young mothers looked after their babies with great care. 11. Nobody lived in that old house. 12. They sent for Jim and told him to prepare a report on that subject.
Передайте следующие предложения в Passive Voice.
E.g. Mother waters the flowers in the evening.
The flowers are watered in the evening (by Mother)
1. A marble pavillion protects the house. 2. The boys will paint the roof of the house. 3. Tom Sawyer whitewashed the fence. 4. Her daughters gave her three beautiful dishes as a birthday present. 5. Tom gave Nick a book for his birthday. 6. Our mother tells us stories every evening. 7. Lydia will show you a new book of pictures. 8. A boy showed her the way. 9. They will send us a box of fruit. 10. Five or six small children followed them. 11. In summer the boys often drive the horses to the fields. 12. Ivan Susanin led the Poles into the thickest part of the forest. 13. The waves carried the boat away. 14. We shall do the translation in the evening. 15. They water the flowers regularly. 16. You promised me these books long ago, 17. Bessie’s father gave her a complete set of Walter Scott’s works. 18. Irene’s husband brought her some beautiful shells from the south. 19. The explorers gave the newspaper reporters a long interview. 20. Mr. Wilson will teach you English. 21. The doctor ordered me a month’s rest from studying.
1. Nobody (to see) him yesterday. 2. The telegram (to receive) tomorrow. 3. He (to give) me this book next week. 4. The answer to this question can (to find) in the encyclopedia. 5. We (to show) the historical monuments of the capital to the delegation. 6. You can (to find) interesting information about the life in the USA in this book. 7. Budapest (to divide) by the Danube into two parts: Buda and Pest. 8. Yuri Dolgoruki (to found) Moscow in 1147. 9. Moscow University (to found) by Lomonosov. 10. We (to call) Zhukovski the father of Russian aviation.
V1 Передайте следующие предложения в Passive Voice.
1. At twelve o’clock the workers were loading the trucks. 2. By three o’clock the workers had loaded the trucks. 3. We send our daughter to rest in the south every year. 4. They will show this film on TV. 5. They are building a new concert-hall in our street. 6. They have made a number of important experiments in this laboratory. 7. Livingstone explored Central Africa in the 19th century.8. By the middle of autumn we had planted all the trees. 9. They will stage this play at the beginning of next season. 10. They have forgotten the story. 11. Has anybody explained the rules of the game to you? 12. They haven’t brought back my skates.
1. I bought potatoes yesterday. 2. We shall bring the books tomorrow. 3. They are repairing the clock now. 4. They sell milk in this shop. 5. I have translated the whole text. 6. They broke the window last week. 7. When I came home, they had eaten the sweets. 8. We shall do the work in the evening. 9. He wrote this book in the 19th century. 10. They were playing tennis from four till five. 11. He stole a lot of money from the shop. 12. By six o’clock they had finished the work.
V3 Передайте следующие предложения в Passive Voice.
1. The students greeted the famous lecturer warmly. 2. They have recently built a huge plant, in the town of N. 3. We must finish the work by tomorrow. 4. When I fell ill, my mother sent for the doctor. 5. They looked for the girl everywhere. 6. They did not listen to the boy. 7. She looks after the patients well. 8. They asked for our address. 9. My father looked through these papers this morning. 10. He will give my brother English lessons. 11. A friend of his has shown me an interesting magazine. 12. His friend told him everything.
1. They showed Helen the nearest way to the theatre. 2. He gave his patient some good advice. 3. Mary has told me the news. 4. The people looked at the little boy with interest.5. They examined the paper attentively. 6. We asked him about his holidays. 7. They have already discussed the novel. 8. He did not give me his address. 9. She showed him the way to the metro station. 10. He will introduce me to his friends. 11. They are building a bridge over the river. 12. I haven’t yet translated the article.
V5 Передайте следующие предложения в Passive Voice.
1. We turn on the light when it is dark. 2. The students finished their translation in time. 3. Helen washed the dishes. 4. Betty often took her younger brother for a walk. 5. Mother has made some coffee. 6. Have you ironed your dress yet? 7. Nina mispronounced this word. 8. They have told her the truth. 9. She promised us an interesting entertainment. 10. One uses chalk for writing on the blackboard. 11. I shall finish my work about seven o’clock. 12. Somebody has opened the door.
V6 Передайте следующие предложения в Passive Voice.
1. They did not invite her to the party. 2. I did not leave the window open. 3. They did not turn off the light. 4. I have invited some friends to tea 5. She has given me an English book. 6. Have you written the letter yet? 7. They have told us a lot о S interesting things. 8. The students have written the test-paper without mistakes. 9. The children have scattered about a lot of things. 10. The girl has put all the books into the bookcase. 11. Snow, will cover the fields in winter. 12. They will hand in the homework tomorrow.
Choose the correct form.
1.America … by Columbus in 1498.
a). is discovered b). was discovered b). discovered
2.The houses … of stone and wood.
a) were built b)are built c). are being built
3.The article … already … .
a). had … been typed b). will be typed c). has … been typed
4.These letters … tomorrow.
a)are mailed b).were mailed c). will be mailed
5.The fish … very well.
a). was cooked b). had been cooked c). will be cooked
6.Moscow University … in 1755.
a). is founded b). was founded c).will be founded
7.Three foreign languages … in our school next year.
a). is taught b). was taught c). will be taught
8.The doctor … an hour ago.
a). send for b). is sent for c).was sent for
9.English … in many countries of the world.
a). is being spoken b). spoke c). is spoken
10.Most of the Earth’s surface( поверхность Земли ) … by water.
a). is covered b) coveres c) was covered
Запомнив когда и какой вспомогательный глагол используется, можно переходить к построению предложений. Очень эффективными считаются упражнения на Passive Voice, которые необходимо перестроить из активного залога. Их часто называют переделки.
Мы прекрасно знаем, что в страдательном залоге используются предлоги by, with, первый из которых показывает, что действие совершает одушевленное подлежащее, а второй — неодушевленное. Чтобы эта информация четко отложилась в памяти, проделайте хотя бы одно упражнение на эту тематику.
Когда вы отработаете все формы, все времена, пройдите комплексный тест Passive Voice , чтобы быть уверенным, что вы все правильно поняли.
Но и здесь есть несколько подводных камней. Например, пассивные конструкции, некоторые глаголы со страдательным значением. Если первые можно выучить наизусть, запомнить со временем, то последние очень часто вызывают затруднение. Необходимо анализировать предложение. Обязательно пройдите несколько упражнений (exercises) по данному вопросу.
Когда все эти этапы будут позади, вы будете уверены, что страдательный залог не просто пройден, а отложен в памяти надолго. Но не забывайте периодически повторять материал. Все со временем забывается, а язык и все его правила особенно. Научитесь жить с английским, проводить с ним время, и тогда у вас все получится.
1. Перепишите предложения из активного залога в пассивный
Nobody has used this room for ages.
We will give you the keys tomorrow.
Someone is interviewing Dr Johnson at the moment.
By the time I arrived, someone had already opened all your letters.
We usually talk briefly about the problems of the family at dinner time.
This room hasn’t been used for ages.
The keys will be given you tomorrow.
Dr Johnson is being interviewed at the moment.
By the time I arrived, all your letters had been already opened.
The problems of the family are usually talked briefly at dinner time.
2 . Выберите правильный вариант
1. This theatre … (build) over 100 years ago.
2. Is your car still for sale? — No. It … already (sell).
3. Sometimes mistakes … (make).
4. For the past few days I (work) in Jack’s office, as my own … (decorate).
a. have been working/ is being decorated
b. worked/ decorated
c. am worked/ is being decorated.
5. While my friend … (talk) to me, his wallet .. (steal).
a. was being talked/ was being stolen
b. was talking/ was stolen
6. Where is your friend Bob? — — I don’t know. He … (not/ seen) resently.
7. If someone … (report) you to the police, you … (make) to pay a big fine.
a. reports/ will be made
b. will report/ will make
c. is reported/ will be made
8. Professor … ( give) another lecture at the same time next week.
a. will have been given
9. Look at the dust in here! It … (look) as if this room (not/clean) … for a month.
a. is looked/ hasn’t cleaned
b. looks/ hasn’t been cleaned
c. has looked/ isn’t cleaned
10. The door … (open) and a young lady … (come in). It should be admitted that the door … (open) by herself.
Упражнения «Страдательный (пассивный) залог прошедшего времени» (с ответами)
1. Поставьте глагол в форму пассивного залога прошедшего времени.
- Jack . (examine) by the doctor. (Джека осмотрел доктор.)
- The teapot . (break) last week. (Чайник был разбит на прошлой неделе.)
- The letters . (hand) to Doctor Loyds. (Письма были вручены доктору Лойдс.)
- The girl . (frighten) by homeless dogs. (Девочку напугали бездомные собаки.)
- This novel . (not translate). (Этот роман не был переведен.)
- We . (not invite) to Andrew’s party. (Нас не пригласили на вечеринку у Эндрю.)
2. Измените предложения в действительном залоге на страдательный.
Например: We sent for the doctor. (Мы послали за доктором.) – The doctor was sent for. (За доктором послали.)
- The earthquake ruined a lot of villages. (Землетрясение разрушило много деревень.)
- Mother was cooking fantastic dinner. (Мама готовила фантастический ужин.)
- Somebody had stolen their car. (Кто-то украл их машину.)
- The secretary was typing the documents. (Секретарь печатала документы.)
- Sam had already painted the self-portrait. (Сэм уже написал автопортрет.)
- Kirsty bought these cushions in China. (Керсти купила эти подушки в Китае.)
3. Составьте по два предложения в пассивном залоге.
Например: We told her the news. (Мы рассказали ей новость.) – She was told the news. (Ей рассказали новость.), The news was told to her. (Новость была рассказана ей.)
- They gave me an Italian book. (Они дали мне итальянскую книгу.)
- He was showing us his new house. (Он показывал нам свой новый дом.)
- The waiter had served him a beef steak. (Официант подал ему говяжий стейк.)
- President promised his people prosperity. (Президент пообещал своему народу процветание.)
- Ross had taught Mary English grammar. (Мистер Росс обучил Мэри английской грамматике.)
4. Составьте вопросительные предложения, начиная с предложенных слов.
- Megan had been advised to wear contact lenses. (Меган посоветовали носить контактные линзы.) Why . ? What . ?
- The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell. (Телефон был изобретен Александром Бэлл.) Who . by? When . ?
- The dogs were being trained by a policeman. (Собак тренировал полицейский.) Where . ? How many dogs . ?
- French textbooks had been packed for the library. (Французские учебники были упакованы для библиотеки.) What kind of books . ?
- was examined
- was broken
- were handed
- was frightened
- wasn’t translated
- were not invited
- A lot of villages were ruined by the earthquake.
- Fantastic dinner was being cooked .
- Their car had been stolen .
- The documents were being typed by the secretary.
- The self-portrait had already been painted .
- These cushions were bought by Kirsty in China.
- I was given an Italian book. An Italian book was given to me.
- We were being shown the new house. The new house was being shown to us.
- He had been served a beef steak. A beef steak had been served to him.
- Prosperity was promised by president. The people were promised prosperity.
- Mary had been taught English grammar by Mr. Ross. English grammar had been taught to Mary by Mr. Ross.
- Why had Megan been advised to wear contact lenses? What had Megan been advised to wear?
- Who was the telephone invented by? When was the telephone invented?
- Where were the dogs being trained? How many dogs were being trained by a policeman?
- What kind of books had been packed for the library?