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И. П. Крылова, Е. М. Гордон — Грамматика современного английского языка_ENG

И. П. Крылова Е. М. Гордон

Рекомендовано Министерством общего и профессионального образования Российской Федерации в качестве учебника для студентов институтов и факультетов иностранных языков

Крылова И. П., Гордон Е. М.

К85 Грамматика современного английского языка: Учебник для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. — 9-е изд. — М.: Книжный дом «Университет»: Высшая школа, 2003. — 448 с. — На англ. яз.

ISBN 5-8013-0168-2 (Книжный дом «Университет»)

ISBN 5-06-004669-9 (Высшая школа)

Учебник предназначен для студентов тех институтов и факультетов иностранных языков, в которых курс практической грамматики читается на английском языке. Учебник содержит развернутое описание частей речи, краткие сведения о структуре предложения. Последовательно проводится стиллистическая дифференциация грамматических явлений.

Тщательный подбор иллюстративных примеров, которые содержат общеупотребительную лексику, но вместе с тем являются образцами хорошего литературного языка, обеспечивают повышение общего уровня владения языком.

Рекомендуется использовать в комплекте со «Сборником упражнений по грамматике английского языка» И. П. Крыловой.

(Книжный дом «Университет»)

© И. П. Крылова, Е. М. Гордон, 2003

«A Grammar of Present-Day English» — учебник, предназначенный для студентов институтов иностранных языков, а также факультетов иностранных языков педагогических институтов и филологических факультетов университетов. Это означает, что учебник рассчитан на студентов, овладевших грамматическим материалом, предусмотренным программой средней школы, т. е. знакомых с основными понятиями морфологии и синтаксиса. Учебник представляет собой практический курс грамматики английского языка. Практическая направленность учебника определяет принципы, положенные в его основу:

1. Авторы не считают возможным в практическом курсе грамматики давать теоретическое обоснование своей точке зрения и ограничиваются лишь практическими выводами.

2. В учебнике описываются грамматические нормы английского языка, иными словами, объясняются типичные явления, которые и должны усваиваться студентами. В ряде случаев упоминаются также и отклонения от норм, если они необходимы студентам для правильного понимания читаемой литературы, но при этом всегда делается специальная оговорка. Редкие отклонения от норм вообще не включены в учебник.

3. Авторы ставят перед собой задачу не только описать грамматические явления современного английского языка, но также предста — вить их так, чтобы предотвратить типичные ошибки.

4. Один из ведущих принципов, положенных в основу учебника, заключается в том, что студенты должны изучать хорошие образцы английского языка. Это относится как к формулированию правил, так

и к примерам, которые их иллюстрируют. Поэтому особое внимание уделялось подбору иллюстративного материала. Авторы стремились к тому, чтобы примеры содержали употребительную лексику и одновременно оставались бы хорошими образцами английского языка и чтобы учебник, таким образом, помогал студентам совершенствовать их зна — ния. Следует заметить, что количество примеров варьируется в учебнике в зависимости от употребительности того или иного грамматического явления и от объема раздела, который он иллюстрирует.

Кроме того, в учебник включены наиболее употребительные устой-

чивые сочетания (set phrases) и готовые фразы (stereotyped phrases),

возникшие на основе описанных грамматических моделей.

5. В учебнике проводится стилистическая дифференциация грамматических явлений, в частности особая оговорка делается в отноше — нии явлений, типичных только для книжной речи или носящих сугубо разговорный характер. Грамматические модели, которые в стилистическом отношении являются нейтральными, в специальных пояснениях, разумеется, не нуждаются.

В связи с этим авторы рекомендуют преподавателям привлечь особое внимание студентов к правильному стилистическому исполь — зованию грамматических моделей.

6. В учебнике не проводится систематического сопоставления грамматических явлений английского языка с соответствующими яв — лениями в русском языке. Авторы, однако, прибегают к сравнениям с русским языком там, где это необходимо для понимания того или иного явления в английском языке.

Переводы на русский язык отдельных предложений, оборотов, терминов даются лишь там, где возникает опасение, что английский материал будет труден для понимания.

Авторы считают, что для практических целей овладения английской грамматикой достаточно описания частей речи со всеми их семантическими, морфологическими и синтаксическими особенностями.

В учебнике отражены следующие признаки частей речи: 1) их семантика, 2) грамматические категории (для изменяемых частей речи),

3) их функции в предложении. Эти критерии, служащие для выделения частей речи в языке, положены в основу описания каждой отдельной части речи, и этот принцип проводится в учебнике систематиче — ски.

Хотя словообразование и сочетаемость с другими частями речи также являются существенными критериями выделения частей речи в языке, авторы не нашли нужным включать эти разделы в учебник. В институтах и на факультетах иностранных языков словообразование обычно входит в курс лексикологии, и включение его в грамматику создало бы ненужное дублирование курсов.

Что касается сочетаемости частей речи, то она фактически отражена в учебнике полностью при описании их синтаксических функций в предложении, и для практического овладения материалом выделение

ее в особый раздел представляется излишним.

Согласно общепризнанной точке зрения, важнейшей частью речи является глагол, который представляет собой ядро предложения. В практическом плане именно употребление глагольных форм представляет для изучающих английский язык наибольшие трудности. Поэтому глаголу в учебнике уделяется самое значительное место, и именно с глагола начинается рассмотрение всех частей речи.

Другим чрезвычайно важным в практическом отношении разделом грамматики является употребление артиклей. Этой теме в учебнике также отводится значительное место.

Стремясь к тому, чтобы учебник максимально способствовал именно практическому овладению грамматикой, авторы по-новому освещают некоторые грамматические явления или вносят дополнения и уточнения к традиционным объяснениям.

Это относится, в первую очередь, к разделам, посвященным глаголу. В учебнике вводится понятие структурной и лексической обусловленности употребления некоторых глагольных форм (см. «Verbs», §8), и преподавателям следует уделять этому вопросу особое внимание. Важную роль в учебнике играет выделение структурных моделей, типичных для употребления некоторых глагольных форм. По-новому освещается употребление формы Present Perfect и форм, служащих для отнесения действия к будущему. Введены дополнительные объяснения к употреблению форм Past Continuous, Past Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous и Past Perfect Continuous, а также к правилам согласования времен и употребления страдательного залога. По возможности просто, без излишней терминологической перегруженности, трактуются формы выражения нереальности, Они тесно связаны с употреблением модальных глаголов, объяснение которых предшествует описанию форм нереальности. Изменения внесены также в описание неличных форм глагола: их специфика выявляется лишь при сопоставлении с предикативными формами, и этому вопросу уделяется много внимания. Детально описывается значение простой формы, объясняются причины относительно редкого употребления аналитических форм. Внесены изменения и в описание функций неличных форм глагола в предложении. Наиболее существенное изменение касается герундия и причастия I, которые по традиции обычно рассматриваются как две различные формы, хотя многие грамматисты указывают, что они фактически не разграничимы. В предлагаемом учебнике они трактуются, вслед за некоторыми лингвистами, как единая форма — the ing-form, способная выполнять в предложении, подобно инфинитиву, самые разнообразные функции. Для практического овладения материалом такая интерпретация, как показывает опыт, оказывается более эффективной. Авторы рекомендуют изучать употребление инфинитива и инговой формы параллельно по функциям. Например, изучая инфинитив в функции подлежащего, целесообразно одновременно читать материал об инговой форме в той же функции, а также параграфы, в которых эти две функции сравниваются (§§ 181, 209 и 235). Затем следует переходить к другой функции. На этой сравнительной основе построены упражнения в «Сборнике упражнений по грамматике английского языка» И. П. Крыловой. Вопрос раз-

граничения герундия и причастия I представляет интерес скорее для изучающих курс теоретической грамматики английского языка.

По-новому освещается в учебнике также употребление артиклей. Раздел «Краткие сведения о структуре предложения» не претендует

на полное описание синтаксической структуры английского языка, а является скорее справочным материалом, которым следует пользо — ваться в том случае, если, работая над основными главами, студенты сталкиваются с трудностями в определении синтаксических функций тех или иных классов слов. Кроме того, в учебнике используются не совсем традиционные названия некоторых синтаксических функций, объяснение которым также можно найти в этом разделе.

В учебнике имеется приложение, которое содержит список неправильных глаголов и предметный указатель.

PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH

The words of every language fall into classes which are called parts of speech. Each part of speech has characteristics of its own. Parts of speech differ from each other in meaning, form and function.

Different parts of speech have different lexical meanings. For example, verbs are words denoting processes (to work, to live); nouns are names of objects (table, boy); adjectives are words expressing characteristics (good, bad), etc.

Some parts of speech have different grammatical categories, e.g. verbs have the categories of mood, tense, aspect, phase, voice, person and number; nouns have the categories of number and case; adjectives have degrees of comparison, etc.

Other parts of speech are invariable, they have only one form. Here belong such parts of speech as prepositions and conjunctions.

Parts of speech also differ from each other in their syntactic functions. For example, verbs have the function of the predicate in the sentence, nouns are often used as the subject or the object of the sentence, adjectives serve as attributes or predicatives; adverbs are generally adverbial modifiers, etc.

These characteristic features will be described in detail when each part of speech is considered individually.

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In addition, all words may be divided into two main groups: notional and structural.

Notional words have distinct lexical meanings and perform independent syntactic functions in the sentence: they serve either as primary or secondary parts of the sentence. To this group belong the following parts of speech: verbs, nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns and adverbs.

Structural words differ from notional words semantically: their lexical meaning is of a more general character than that of notional words (e.g. in, and, even). Moreover, they are sometimes altogether devoid of it (e.g. the articles the and a, the conjunction that, the preposition of, e t c . ) . Structural words do not perform

any independent syntactic function in the sentence but serve either to express various relations between words in a sentence (e.g. the trees in the garden, Tom and Joe, etc.) or to specify the meaning of a word (e.g. the book, a book, etc.). The following parts of speech are to be treated as structural words: articles, prepositions and conjunctions.

The division of words into notional and structural is connected with certain difficulties. For example, verbs, which, on the whole, are to be treated as notional words, include certain words which serve as structural elements (e.g. modal verbs), some other verbs may function either as notional words or as structural words (e.g. to look is a notional verb in He looked at me and a structural word — a link-verb — in He looked tired; the verb to have is a notional verb in I have a car and a structural word — a modal verb — in I had to do it). Pronouns may be quoted as another example since, on the one hand, they have, like all notional words, independent syntactic functions in the sentence but, on the other hand, they are devoid of distinct lexical meaning.

§ 1. According to content, verbs can be described as words denoting actions, the term «actions» embracing the meaning of activity (e.g. to walk, to speak, to play, to study), process (e.g. to sleep, to wait, to live), state (e.g. to be, to like, to know), relation (e.g. to consist, to resemble, to lack) and the like.

According to form, verbs can be described as words that have certain grammatical features that are not shared by other parts of speech, e.g. they have the categories of tense, aspect, voice, etc.

According to function, verbs can be defined as words making up the predicate of the sentence.

§ 2. Verbs can be classified under different heads.

1) According to their meaning verbs can be divided into two groups — terminative and durative verbs.

Terminative verbs imply a limit beyond which the action can — not continue. To put it differently, they have a final aim in view, e.g. to open, to close, to bring, to recognize, to refuse, to break.

With the verb to open, for example, that means that after opening the door it is impossible to go on with the action as the door is al — ready open.

Durative verbs do not imply any such limit, and the action can go on indefinitely, e.g. to carry, to live, to speak, to know, to sit, to play.

But as most verbs in English are polysemantic they may be terminative in one meaning and durative in another. For example, to see may have the terminative meaning ‘увидеть’ and the durative meaning ‘видеть’; to know may denote ‘знать’ and ‘узнатьThe meaning of the verb becomes clear from the context. Compare: I saw him at once and I saw his face quite clearly. As will be seen, the distinction between terminative and durative verbs is of great importance as it affects the use of certain tense -aspect-phase forms.

2) According to their relation to the continuous form, English verbs fall into two groups: dynamic verbs, i.e. verbs which admit of the continuous form (a) and stative verbs, i.e. verbs which do not admit of the continuous form (b).

e.g. a) We were eating dinner when he called.

You’ll find Mother in the kitchen. She is making a cake, b) I understand what you mean.

I don’t see him in the crowd.

The distinction between dynamic, and stative verbs is funda — mental in English grammar, and it is also reflected in a number of other ways than in the continuous form.

It is normal for verbs to be dynamic, and even the minority that are almost always stative can be given a dynamic use on occasion.

The following is the list of most commonly used stative verbs:

a) verbs denoting physical perceptions: to hear, to notice, to see;

b) verbs denoting emotions: to adore, to care for, to detest, to dislike, to hate, to like, to love, to respect;

c) verbs denoting wish: to desire, to want, to wish;

d) verbs denoting mental processes: to admire (= to be of high opinion), to appreciate, to assume, to believe (= to consider), to con sider (= to regard), to doubt, to expect (= to suppose), to feel (= to consider), to imagine, to know, to mind (= to object), to perceive, to presume, to recall, to recognize, to recollect, to regard, to remember, to suppose, to think (= to consider), to trust, to understand;

e) relational verbs: to apply, to be, to belong, to concern, to consist, to contain, to depend, to deserve, to differ, to equal, to fit, to have, to hold (= to contain), to include, to involve, to lack, to matter, to need, to owe, to own, to possess, to remain, to require, to resemble, to result, to signify, to suffice;

f) some other verbs: to agree, to allow, to appear (= to seem),

to astonish, to claim, to consent, to displease, to envy, to fail to do, to feel (intr) l , to find, to forbid, to forgive, to intend, to interest, to keep doing, to manage to do, to mean, to object, to please,

to prefer, to prevent, to puzzle, to realize, to refuse, to remind, to satisfy, to seem, to smell (intr), 1 to sound (intr), 1 to succeed, to suit, to surprise, to taste (intr), 1 to tend, to value.

1 As in: The surface feels rough. The song sounds nice. The soup tastes (smells) nice.

3) English verbs are also classified according to the type of object they take. Verbs that do not require any object are called intransitive.

e.g. We walked across the fields.

Nobody knew where the old man lived.

Verbs that require some kind of object to complete their meaning are called transitive. The objects transitive verbs take may be direct (a), indirect (b) or prepositional (c).

e.g. a) I swear I’m telling the truth.

b) His mother never gave him advice.

c) Now let’s talk of something sensible.

Polysemantic verbs may be transitive in one meaning and intransitive in another.

e.g. I didn’t know where to find him as he had changed his address. I was glad to see that he had not changed at all.

He ran uphill past a block of houses. She ran the shop quite competently.

§ 3. According to their meaning and function in the sentence English verbs are classified into notional and structural ones.

Notional verbs always have a lexical meaning of their own and can have an independent syntactic function in the sentence.

e.g. During the war he lived in London.

When a verb is used as a structural word, it may either pre — serve or lose its lexical meaning. But even if it has a lexical meaning of its own, the latter is of a specific character and the verb cannot have an independent syntactic function in the sentence — it is always closely connected with some other word. Here belong modal verbs and link-verbs.

A modal verb is always accompanied by an infinitive — together they form a modal predicate.

e.g. The party is at eight. You must dress suitably for it. I couldn’t do anything under the circumstances.

A link-verb is followed by a predicative; together they form a nominal predicate.

e.g. He was a middle-aged man.

It became very hot by noon.

The hotel remained empty all through the winter. The cottage seemed deserted.

Sometimes a verb is entirely devoid of lexical meaning and is then called an auxiliary verb. Combined with a notional verb it serves to build up analytical forms.

e.g. We had arranged to meet in the usual place. Do you know why he said that?

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The young man was sitting at the table alone.

Polysemantic verbs may be notional as well as structural words.

e.g. He is married and has three children (a notional verb used in the meaning ‘to possess’).

I had to reconsider my position (a structural word: a modal verb denoting obligation, part of a modal predicate).

«It has happened now,» he said, «so there’s nothing to do»

(a structural word: an auxiliary verb which serves to build up an analytical form).

He looked at me, waiting for the next words ( notional verb meaning ‘glanced’).

He looked quite happy (a structural word: a link-verb meaning ‘seemed’).

§ 4. English verbs are characterized by a great variety of forms which can be divided into two main groups according to the function they perform in the sentence: the finite forms and the non-fi- nite forms.

The finite forms have the function of the predicate in the sentence and may also be called the predicative forms.

The non-finite or non-predicative forms can have various other functions; they are used as the predicate of the sentence only by way of exception. These forms are often called the verbals (see «Verbs», §§ 163-254).

The finite forms of the verb have the following grammatical categories:

1) Person and Number. These categories of the verb serve to show the connection between the subject and the predicate of the

sentence — the subject agrees with the predicate in person and number. We find three persons (the first, the second, and the third ) and two numbers (the singular and the plural) in finite verbs (see the formation of finite forms, «Verbs», §§ 9, 11, 15, 17, 22, 25, 29, 33, 38, 40, 43, 45).

2) Tense, Aspect and Phase (see «Verbs», § 7).

3) Voice (see «Verbs», §§ 61-63).

4) Mood (see «Verbs», §§ 122-125).

§ 5. The forms that serve to express the above mentioned grammatical categories may be built up in different ways.

We find three basic forms that serve as a foundation for building up all the other forms of the English verb. These forms are: 1) the plain verb stem which is also often referred to as the infinitive without the particle to, 2) the Past Indefinite, and 3) the participle.

According to the way of forming the Past Indefinite and the participle, all verbs can be divided into two classes: regular and irregular verbs.

With regular verbs, the Past Indefinite and the participle are formed by adding the suffix -ed. It is pronounced [d] after vowels and voiced consonants (e.g. played, answered, opened, closed), [t] after voiceless consonants (e.g. looked, passed), and [id] after verbs ending in [t] or [d] (e.g. wanted, wasted, ended, landed).

In writing the following spelling rules should be observed:

1) Verbs ending in -y preceded by a consonant change the -y into -led (e.g. study — studied, envy — envied). But if the -y is preceded by a vowel, it remains unchanged (e.g. play — played, stay — stayed).

2) A final consonant is doubled if it is preceded by a short stressed vowel or if a verb ends in a stressed -er (-ur) (e.g. stop — stopped, admit — admitted, occur — occurred, prefer — preferred). But if the preceding vowel is long or unstressed, the final consonant remains single (e.g. limit — limited, perform — performed, conquer — conquered, appear — appeared).

3) A final -l is always doubled in British English (e.g. travel — travelled, quarrel — quarrelled).

All other verbs should be regarded as irregular in modern English. They are a miscellaneous group comprising various patterns

(e.g. sing — sang — sung, write — wrote — written, send — sent — sent, teach — taught — taught, etc.)- Some verbs have a regular form by the side of an irregular one (e.g. learn — learnt

— learnt and also learn — learned — learned). A number of verbs remain unchanged (e.g. cut — cut — cut, hit — hit — hit). Two verbs take their forms from different roots and are called suppletive systems. They are the verbs to be and to go. (For a complete list of irregular verbs see Appendix.)

§ 6. The forms of the verb which are built up with the help of the above described basic forms may be of two different kinds — synthetic or analytical.

Synthetic forms are built up by a change in the word itself: by means of suffixes (e.g. I work, he works, we worked), by means of vowel change (e.g. I find, I found), and sometimes by combining both means (e.g. I think, I thought).

Analytical forms consist of two components, e.g. He has worked hard. The first component is an auxiliary verb which has no lexical meaning — it expresses only grammatical meaning. The second component is a notional verb which is the bearer of lexical meaning (‘носитель лексического значения’). The auxiliary verb shows that has worked is the third person singular, the Indicative Mood, the Active Voice. But the specific meaning of this particu — lar form, that of the Present Perfect, results only from the combi — nation of both components.

In the analytical form was written (as in: The letter was written yesterday), written is the bearer of lexical meaning; was shows that we are dealing with the third person singular, the Indicative Mood, the Past Indefinite, But again the specific grammatical meaning of this particular form, that of the Passive Voice, is expressed by the whole combination of the auxiliary and the notional verb.

Thus an analytical form consists of two words — a structural word and a notional word — which form a very close, inseparable unit. It functions in English as the form of a single word by the side of synthetic forms (e.g. he works, he has worked, he worked, he was working, he had worked, etc.).

The auxiliary verb itself may be an analytical form (e.g. He has been working. He will be working. The letter has been written, etc.). Such forms may be called complex analytical forms.

FINITE FORMS OF THE VERB

Tense, Aspect and Phase

§ 7. Tense is the form of the verb which indicates the time of the action. The category of tense in English is made up by a set of forms opposed to each other in referring the event or state de — scribed to the present, past or future.

Aspect is the form of the verb which serves to express the manner in which the action is regarded. There are two opposing sets of aspect forms in English — the Continuous forms and the Non-Continuous (Indefinite) forms. The Non-Continuous (Indefinite) forms have a very broad meaning, they have no specialized aspect characteristics of their own and merely represent an action as occurring. Conversely, the Continuous forms have a clear -cut aspect characteristic, which is to represent an action in its tempo — rary development. The Continuous forms have a number of other concomitant meanings or overtones that go with the basic meaning of process and duration. They are incompletion, simultaneity, vividness of description, emotional colouring and emphasis.

Besides, there are the Perfect forms which are opposed to the Non-Perfect forms. The latter have no definite grammatical characteristics. The grammatical meaning of the Perfect forms is to express retrospectiveness, which consists of two elements — priority and relevance. In some grammars this category has been given the name phase.

The three grammatical categories of the English verb are so closely merged together that it is impossible to treat them sepa — rately.

We find the following finite forms in English: the Present Indefinite, the Present Continuous, the Present Perfect, the Present Perfect Continuous, the Past Indefinite, the Past Continuous, the Past Perfect, the Past Perfect Continuous, the Future Indefinite, the Future Continuous, the Future Perfect, the Future Indefinite — in-the-Past, the Future Continuous-in-the-Past, and the Future Perfect-in-the-Past.

§ 8. 1) In discussing the use of English finite forms it is necessary to understand that in most cases the choice is free: the form is chosen in accordance with the meaning the speaker wishes to

convey and does not depend on the structure of the sentence, e.g.

He knows English. He knew English. He will know English.

In certain cases, however, the choice of the form is determined by the structure of the sentence, usually the kind of clause in which it is used. For example, the use of t he Present Indefinite with reference to the future in a clause of time or condition (a), or the use of a finite form under the rules of the sequence of tenses (b).

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e.g. a) When you feel hungry, I’ll bring you some sandwiches. If I want anything I’ll call you up.

b) She knew that Henry would be waiting for her. I wondered if he had kept his promise.

In such cases we have the structurally dependent use of finite forms.

In still other cases the choice of the finite form in a sub — ordinate clause is determined not so much by the kind of clause as by the lexical character of the head-word, i.e. the word in the principal clause which the subordinate clause modifies or refers to. For example, in object clauses subordinated to the verbs to see to, to take care or to make sure the future forms are not used.

e.g. He’ll take care that she comes in time.

She saw to it that they had plenty of food in the house.

In such cases we have the lexically-dependent use of finite forms.

2) Closely connected with the above notion is the absolute and relative use of finite forms. The forms may refer an action direct — ly to the present, past or future time. We are dealing in this case with the absolute use of finite forms, which, as a rule, is structur — ally independent.

But in certain types of clauses the verb form of the sub — ordinate clause only shows whether the action of the clause is si — multaneous with that of the principal clause, precedes it or follows it. (These relations may be termed as simultaneity, priority and posteriority respectively.) In this case we are dealing with the relative use of finite forms. It is usually structurally dependent (see, for example, the rules of the sequence of tenses).

e.g. He discovered that his wife knew London far better than he did. He knew that she had read his thoughts.

He thought that he would hate the place.

3) Last but not least, students of English should differentiate between present-time contexts and past-time contexts.

In present-time contexts, i.e. in conversations, letters, newspaper and radio reports, lectures and scientific prose, the situation is viewed from the moment of speaking. (The moment of speaking is to be understood as present from the speaker’s point of view but not as the present moment.) Any finite form that is re quired by the sense can be used in present-time contexts. The only reservation should be made for the Past Perfect and the Past Perfect Continuous and all the Future-in-the-Past forms which are, in presenttime contexts, mainly found in reported speech or thought.

In past-time contexts, i.e. in narration, the situation is viewed from a past moment. Hence, the use of finite forms is restricted only to past forms including the Future-in-the-Past.

The Present Indefinite

§ 9. The Present Indefinite is formed from the plain stem of the verb. In the third person singular it has the suffix -s/-es which is pronounced [z| after vowels and voiced consonants (e.g. plays, opens), [s] after voiceless consonants (e.g. looks, puts), and [iz] after sibilants (e.g. closes, places, teaches, wishes, judges).

In writing the following spelling rules should be observed:

a) Verbs ending in -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -tch, x and -z take the suffix — es (e.g. passes, pushes, watches). The suffix -es is also added to verbs ending in о preceded by a consonant (e.g. goes).

b) Verbs ending in -y with a preceding consonant change the -y into -ies (e.g. study — studies, try — tries, fly — flies). But if the

У is preceded by a vowel, the suffix -s is added (e.g. play — plays, stay — stays).

The affirmative form of the Present Indefinite is a synthetic form (e.g. I work, he works, etc.). But the interrogative and negative forms are built up analytically, by means of the auxiliary verb do in the Present Indefinite and the infinitive of the notional verb without the particle to (e.g. Do you work? Does he work? I do not

work. He does not work, etc.). In spoken English the contracted negative forms don’t and doesn’t should be used.

The Present Indefinite may have a special affirmative form which is used for emphasis. This emphatic form is built up analytically, by means of the Present Indefinite of the auxiliary verb to do followed by the infinitive of the notional verb without the par — ticle to. The auxiliary verb is heavily stressed in this case (e.g. I ‘do insist on it. He ‘does insist on it).

§ 10. The Present Indefinite is used in the following cases:

1) When it serves to express recurrent (a) or permanent (b) actions in the present.

a) We find recurrent actions with terminative verbs. They are, as a matter of fact, point (instantaneous) actions repeated a num — ber of times. This series of recurrent actions may include or ex — clude the actual moment of speaking.

This use of the Present Indefinite is often associated with such adverbial modifiers of frequency as often, seldom, sometimes, occasionally, always, never, ever, every year (week, month, day), usual — ly, once

e.g. He wakes up around six o’clock and has a cup of coffee. He doesn’t usually ring up early in the morning.

«Do you often come to these parties?» inquired Jordan of the girl beside her.

The charwoman comes in daily.

b) We find permanent actions with durative verbs. They generally indicate continuous, uninterrupted processes which naturally include the present moment. Such actions give a general character — istic to the person or thing denoted by the subject. Time indica — tions are not obligatory in this case.

e.g. Her son works near here and so, after her husband’s death, she came down to live here and he boards with her.

That old man gave me a surprise. He’s seventy-five, and he doesn’t walk, he runs.

I teach English and History at a college, and I live with my parents.

I hate authority. It spoils the relations between parent and child.

Like all young men, he sleeps like a log.

As is seen from the above examples, the difference between the two main uses of the Present Indefinite rests on the difference in the lexical character of the verb. In many cases, however, owing to the context or situation, the difference appears blurred and it becomes difficult to define the lexical character of the verb. In other words, we are dealing with marginal cases in this instance — a permanent characteristic is given through recurrent actions.

e.g. I always talk too much when I’m nervous.

I sometimes play the piano for five hours a day. He usually walks to the corner with Phil. Edith always gets away with things.

Note. The Present Indefinite is often said to express a general statement or a universal truth. In this case it also denotes either a recurrent action or a perma — nent process and thus it does not differ in principle from the two above described uses of the Present Indefinite.

e.g. Domestic animals return to their homes. Romance only dies with life.

Still waters run deep, (a proverb)

A mother’s love means devotion, unselfishness, sacrifice.

2) When it is used to express a succession of point actions taking place at the time of speaking. In this meaning it is used in stage directions or by radio and TV commentators in describing sports events, public functions, etc. That means that this use of the Present Indefinite is stylistically restricted.

e.g. a) In stage directions:

REV. S. Good night. (They shake hands. As he passes Vivie he shakes hands with her also and bids her good-night. Then, in booming command, to Frank) Come along, Sir, at once.

b) In comments (here on a TV film about Chi -Chi, the giant panda, who returns home after her stay in the Moscow Zoo):

«Chi-Chi is in the pen. She walks over to the travelling box. Chi-Chi climbs on the rock. The crowd moves closer to Chi-Chi.»

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